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Caserta: un futuro verde, ma quanti ostacoli

Nonostante una crescita urbanistica talvolta senza regole, ad oggi Caserta ha l’aspetto di una città ricca di verde: si calcola al 2018 che siano circa 1,5 milioni di mq. Dalla Reggia di Caserta fino ai più piccoli spazi verdi delle zone periferiche della città ci sono almeno 20,03 metri cubi per abitanti (dati 2016)che comunque pongono la città di Caserta sotto la media delle città italiane per metri cubi di verde\abitanti. Dal 2011 al 2016 c’è stato un calo vertiginoso che ha portato ad una perdita di posizione nella classifica dei metri cubi verdi per abitante: tale fenomeno può essere dovuto a due fattori, la crescita degli abitanti e la diminuzione delle aree verdi.

Rispetto l’anno 2011 si è registrato un decremento demografico ma a questo decremento non è corrisposta un’assegnazione di “mq vacanti” bensì una riduzione dei mq corrisposta alla diminuzione di abitanti nella città, segno di una cattiva amministrazione ambientale che si è ripercossa sulla città: un trend abbastanza strano poiché ad una diminuzione di cittadini corrisponde una diminuzione del verde.

Un anno fa in un sondaggio è stato chiesto ad un campione di 100 cittadini di dare alcune risposte sulla cosidetta “percezione della pianificazione”.

Uno dei quesiti sottoposti al campione è una valutazione della vita all’interno della propria città: gli abitanti sottoposti al sondaggio si sono dimostrati per un 50,6% consapevoli di vivere in una città dove la media di verde per abitante resta tutto sommato buona ma con segni di critica verso l’amministrazione (è stata preferita l’opzione “migliorabile” a “scarsa” e\o “buona”) mentre un 30% rimane estremamente critico rispetto le condizioni della propria città.

La risposta al quesito “Ci sono molti spazi verdi nella tua città?” è stata utile per comprendere al meglio la correlazione tra vivibilità della propria città e spazi verdi: almeno un 73,6 % del campione analizzato riteneva che ci fossero pochi spazi verdi nella città.

Almeno 9 persone su 10 si sono dette estremamente scettiche nei confronti dell’intervento del settore pubblico nel rendere la città un posto più vivibile e solo 1 su 10 riteneva che si lavorasse a progetti per rendere più vivibile la propria zona. Questi dati denotano una correlazione tra il concetto di vivibilità e di verde diffuso tra i cittadini presi in esame per il sondaggio di un anno fa.

Modelli di gestione nella città

Esistono però diversi modelli di gestione che possono essere portati all’attenzione di chi è intenzionato a svolgere un piano d’azione per il recupero ed il miglioramento del verde cittadino. Sicuramente il primo dei modelli che può venirci in mente è quello della piena gestione del Settore Pubblico: il Comune, nell’esercizio delle proprie competenze in materia di territorio, tutelerà quindi il patrimonio costituito dalla presenza di specie vegetali in aree pubbliche e private in quanto componenti essenziali di qualificazione ambientale e del paesaggio. Riconoscendo alla vegetazione una funzione fondamentale nella conservazione degli ecosistemi, proteggendo alberi e piante con norme contro l’abbattimento e garantendo l’agibilità nonché la pulizia delle aree in questione.

Visto così il settore pubblico sembra essere già di per sé sufficiente a dare soluzioni per dare garanzie di una città più verde ma tale affermazione è ben lontana dalla realtà dei fatti: il settore pubblico italiano presenta alcune lacune sotto il punto di vista organizzativo e delle lentezze burocratiche che difficilmente permettono una crescita del verde nella città, in molti casi a tali difetti si associa un voler puntare su settori differenti per la crescita della città, ritenendo le aree verdi alla stregua di un bene superiore anziché di un bene fondamentale.

Restano dei dubbi anche sui privati poiché per quest’ultimo ogni struttura sulla quale investire dovrà essere ragione di guadagno futuro e quasi mai un’opera gratuita elargita al pubblico.

La cittadinanza attiva mette in gioco svariatissime capabilities (dall’organizzazione fino ai lavori manuali) ed un’ampia partecipazione con il fine di creare un bene realmente comune ed un senso di consapevolezza ed appartenenza a quest’ultimo. Tale modello vede coinvolti tre attori: il cittadino, i comitati cittadini e in parte distaccata il pubblico per alcune azioni. Una delle novità di questo modello è la prassi auto-finanzaimento tramite iniziative che promuovano il luogo come punto di ritrovo sociale, culturale e di condivisione.

E’ il caso del Comitato Villa Giaquinto, nato nel 2016, che gestisce insieme alla partecipazione della cittadinanza attiva uno dei principali spazi verdi della città che proprio a causa del dissesto è stato abbandonato dalla PA e sul quale i privati volevano investire come area di parcheggio. L’autogestione dei cittadini ha permesso non solo un progressivo miglioramento dell’area ed un recupero miracoloso di alcune aree gioco all’interno di essa ma anche che il parco divenisse un punto fermo all’interno del proprio quartiere (Via S. Carlo) favorendo una certa propensione alla cura del territorio da parte dei cittadini.

Tale modello è sì funzionante ma deve contare su un ingente impegno dai parte della cittadinanza attiva e su di un’organizzazione sempre propositiva oltre che sull’erogazione dei permessi da parte della PA.

Come Villa Giaquinto sono nati altri comitati di quartiere a tutela degli spazi verdi autogestiti nella città come i giardinetti di Via Arno e Parco degli Aranci.

Questione Ma.C.Ri.Co: storia, situazione attuale e soluzioni

Il Macrico è un enorme area verde (33 ettari quindi 324mila metri quadri) che si estende dal centro della città fino alla più esterna area di Falciano. L’area è proprietà dell’IDSC, ovvero l’Istituto Diocesano per il Sostentamento del Clero e quest’area era utilizzata come residenza vescovile con tanto di giardino. Successivamente, nel 1854, i Borbone chiesero ed ottennero l’acquisto in enfiteusi (una specie di affitto). Lo spazio venne convertito in un campo d’addestramento per le truppe, soprannominato inizialmente Campo di Falciano, poi Campo di Marte ed infine Piazza d’Armi.

Dopo il 1861, l’esercito italiano rinnovò quell’accordo destinando l’intera area alla rimessa dei carri armati, e l’area è ribattezzata Magazzino Centrale Rimessa Mezzi Corazzati. Dopo il 1945 venne realizzata la lunga cinta muraria presente ancora oggi, sebbene successivamente ci sia stato un progressivo abbandono. Con la riassegnazione nel 1984 al Clero si segna un punto negativo dell’ex giardino vescovile: infatti le bonifiche e la rimozione di capannoni in amianto ed altre strutture militari sono un costo eccessivo, unica soluzione l’abbandono. All’inizio del Duemila cominciano le trattative per rendere il Macrico pubblico, ma i costi (40 milioni di euro, prezzo fissato dalla curia) sono troppo ingenti nonostante il Macrico viene inserito nella fascia urbana F2, ovvero quella destinata al verde pubblico, nel 2007dove per analizzare la fattibilità del progetto vengono presi in considerazione tre macro-classi di indicatori per valutare la progettualità e l’analisi costi-benifici: indicatori di pressione, di stato e di risposta. Nei dieci anni successivi nascono diverse proposte-alcune già riportate dallo studio del 2007- dai diversi attori della pianificazione cittadini: per la cittadinanza attiva l’unica soluzione è la destinazione a parco pubblico, per i privati invece (CIRA) prevale l’interesse nel costruire un museo aereospaziale o nel cementificare ed edificare una zona residenziale infine il pubblico richiede da un lato un orto botanico non dissimile da quello di Napoli (SUN) o uno spostamento degli uffici pubblici all’interno dell’area. Tali proposte confliggono tra di loro e vedono tramontare ogni ipotesi di soluzione pubblica nel 2015 con il dissesto finanziario.

Ad oggi il futuro di quest’area è abbastanza incerto, ma il recupero del Macrico permetterebbe di avere non solo un parco pubblico ed un punto d’identificazione vista la sua storia a disposizione della cittadinanza ma anche di equi distribuire nuovi mq di verde per abitante. Si arriverebbero a distribuire per ogni abitante almeno 4,30 m in più rispetto a quelli già distribuiti e gli effetti potrebbero essere benefici non solo ai fini di classifiche e statistiche ma anche di vivibilità della città stessa.

Autore

  • Francesco Fatone è un attivista del Comitato per Villa Giaquinto di Caserta, laureato in Scienze Politiche.

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