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Pensare l’impensabile: un reddito di base nell’era CoViD-19

Sì, quello di cui abbiamo bisogno non sono delle buone ragioni, ma quella grazia particolare.

Thomas Pynchon, L’arcobaleno della gravità, 1973

In questi tragici e tremendi tempi di lotta comune contro l’espandersi del CoViD-19 e connessa, necessaria, quarantena, abbiamo purtroppo avuto una ulteriore, e certo non necessaria, dimostrazione della mentalità ancora arcaica delle nostre classi dirigenti, rispetto agli strumenti di protezione sociale, in particolare in momenti in cui la crisi sanitaria diviene anche crisi economica. Invece di provare a introdurre una misura di sicurezza sociale quanto più universale e inclusiva possibile, si è proceduto per l’elenco di categorie. Così è stato fatto con il Decreto Cura Italia (D.L. n. 18, del 17 marzo 2020) in favore di una parte di quei segmenti di società, ancora non pensati fino in fondo come persone, escluse dalla sicurezza sociale tradizionale, con l’Istituzione del Fondo per il reddito di ultima istanza a favore dei lavoratori danneggiati dal virus COVID-19 (articolo 44 dello stesso Decreto), per liberi professionisti titolari di partita IVA attiva alla data del 23 febbraio 2020 iscritti in via esclusiva alla Gestione separata INPS e lavoratori titolari di rapporti di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa attivi alla medesima data; lavoratori autonomi iscritti alle Gestioni speciali dell’assicurazione generale obbligatoria – Ago (artigiani, commercianti, imprenditori agricoli, coltivatori diretti, coloni e mezzadri); lavoratori stagionali del turismo e degli stabilimenti termali; lavoratori dipendenti del settore agricolo; lavoratori del settore dello spettacolo.

Le e gli invisibili, ancora

Sono rimasti fuori, letteralmente esclusi, da questa prima misura una tantum non solo tutti i soggetti – spesso prevalentemente femminili, in una società ancora fortemente paternalista, patriarcale e familista come la nostra – dell’assistenza alle persone, del sostegno e dell’aiuto domestico più o meno formalmente inquadrato. Ma anche tutta l’ampia fetta di persone sospese nel lavoro informale, sommerso e occasionale, tendenzialmente invisibile al legislatore come alle istituzioni pubbliche di protezione e sicurezza sociale, eppure fondamentale proprio per le lacune del Welfare e delle strutture economiche e produttive del Paese, nella sua artificiosa e dannosa frammentazione tra nord e sud. A dimostrazione che il continuare a procedere per categorie e settori produce sempre l’esclusione di ampie parti di società, la marginalizzazione di aree e condizioni già marginali, confinando le e gli invisibili fuori da qualsiasi cittadinanza possibile, generando in ogni caso iniquità, incertezze e ingiustizie che alimentano la diffidenza e il risentimento contro le istituzioni pubbliche, in un pericoloso circolo vizioso di insofferenza, rancore e intolleranza che mina alla base le fondamenta del vivere in comune tra le differenze. Generando consenso nei confronti di leader opportunistici e politiche identitarie, nazionaliste, securitarie, autoritarie, nell’autolegittimarsi di quella «democrazia reazionaria» che emerge come protagonista, turpe e infame, nella perdurante crisi delle democrazie pluralistiche (A. Mondon, A. Winter, Reactionary Democracy. How Racism and Populist Far Right Became Mainstream, Verso Books, London-New York, 2020).   

Estendere il reddito di cittadinanza?

In questa difficile e tragica situazione, appare quindi parziale pensare ad un’altra misura limitata nel tempo, occasionale e di “eccezione” come il Reddito di Cittadinanza per l’Emergenza, il cd. REM proposto da una parte della società civile istituzionalizzata nel Forum Disuguaglianze Diversità e ASViS – Associazione per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile, per far fronte all’emergenza di nuove condizioni di povertà e di vulnerabilità che rischiano invero di perdurare a lungo nel corpo sociale già insicuro e impoverito (cfr. la proposta fatta da C. Gori, Misure semplici che arrivino a tutta la società, in Il Sole – 24 Ore, 5 aprile, 2020, p. 13, dove si specifica che «il REM utilizza i dispositivi del Reddito di Cittadinanza e lo sostituisce per i nuovi richiedenti per il periodo in cui sarà in vigore»).

Infatti, proprio per andare incontro agli obiettivi proposti dagli stessi proponenti del REM, cioè «costruire subito una diga contro l’impoverimento, raggiungendo rapidamente la popolazione in condizione di necessità non toccata da altre prestazioni di welfare» (sempre C. Gori, Misure semplici che arrivino a tutta la società, cit.) è probabilmente necessario coniugare questa urgenza in una prospettiva più strutturale, «sia per rispondere all’attuale emergenza, sia per ridefinire una misura più universale di protezione sociale […] per garantire ciascun individuo a prescindere dall’appartenenza alle categorie del lavoro o del non lavoro», come sostenuto dall’appello di estensione e ampliamento delle maglie del Reddito di Cittadinanza esistente che come Basic Income Network Italia è stato presentato e sottoscritto da parte della società civile e del mondo del lavoro della cultura e della ricerca (da associazioni come Libera – associazione nomi e numeri contro le mafie, Attac Italia, Progetto diritti, Rete dei Numeri Pari e Transform! Italia, quindi case editrici, movimenti sociali e spazi culturali, poi studiosi, artisti, ricercatori, come la scrittrice Rossana Campo, i filosofi Luigi Ferrajoli e Giacomo Marramao, gli scienziati sociali studiosi del basic income come Elena Granaglia, Corrado Del Bo’, Guy Standing e Philippe Van Parijs)   

Ripensare il mondo? Anche a partire da un reddito di base europeo

Proprio questo è il punto: come fare in modo che la terribile congiuntura di crisi sanitaria, della salute individuale e collettiva, generando una condizione di incertezza economica e sociale di larghi strati delle popolazioni, possa diventare anche l’occasione, certo tragica e sgradita, per riflettere – oltre che sul rapporto tra essere umano e ambiente al tempo dell’Antropocene e sullo sfruttamento intensivo di ampie zone della Terra – anche sulle istituzioni di sicurezza sociale, nel senso di un loro maggiore e concreto universalismo. A dirla tutta, in questo senso sembrano muoversi anche le già ricordate note che accompagnano la presentazione delle proposte del Forum Disuguaglianze Diversità, laddove si sostiene che «lo Stato non deve rivolgersi separatamente alle sue varie parti, magari attribuendo a qualcuna una corsia preferenziale rispetto a un’altra, bensì offrire protezione sociale a tutti e differenziare le risposte in base alle esigenze di ognuno». Ma il tema più generale è quello di coniugare idee e politiche pubbliche consequenziali alla necessità di intendere il Welfare come investimento collettivo, di un benessere sociale diffuso, che parta dalla necessaria lotta alla povertà, per edificare istituzioni che tornino ad ampliare gli spazi di autodeterminazione e solidarietà, promuovendo benessere sanitario, economico, relazionale delle cittadinanze e respingendo i rischi di una ulteriore polarizzazione della società tra inclusi ed esclusi, ricchi e poveri, cittadini nazionali e non, stanziali e migranti, etc.

Si tratta insomma di aprire campagne comunicative sulle possibilità di autoapprendimento spesso drammaticamente generate da questa inedita condizione globale di vulnerabilità, per immaginare strumenti di sicurezza sociale all’altezza delle drammatiche sfide che abbiamo davanti. Osando, anche, per “pensare ciò che prima era considerato impensabile”. Proprio questa formula – in inglese, to think the previously unthinkable – è stata utilizzata per commentare un’indagine coordinata da Timothy Garton Ash, Professore a Oxford, insieme con la ricercatrice Antonia Zimmermann, e svolta con 12mila partecipanti, tra i 16 e i 69 anni, consultati tra il 5 e il 25 marzo 2020 nei 27 Paesi dell’UE e nel Regno Unito, per il 70% dei quali è necessario introdurre un reddito di base universale in Europa – Universal Basic Income (UBI) – come risposta sociale alla pandemia globale. Perché, sempre per questo campione di inchiesta, ma probabilmente per larga parte delle cittadinanze d’Europa, il nesso tra cambiamento climatico e protezione/sicurezza sociale deve essere al centro dell’agenda politica locale e globale.  

Per ripensare insieme il mondo e noi stessi, in quella visione ecosofica, per dirla con Felix Guattari, «che esprime queste tre ecologie: quella dell’ambiente, quella sociale e quella mentale». A partire dal reddito di base, nella vecchia, malandata Europa, pianeta Terra, primavera 2020 dell’era CoViD-19.

Autore

  • Giuseppe Allegri è un attivista e ricercatore indipendente, membro del board IBN.

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